Guide to the Syllables
of the Drums of
North and South India

Cave Hand

Further study on this subject: Ancient Traditions–Future Possibilities:
Rhythmic Training Through the Traditions of Africa, Bali and India.

By Matthew Montfort. Ancient Future Music (1985).
ISBN 0-937879-00-2. Book/CD Set- 74.95. SALE! $53.95:

30 Minute Online Lesson.
Custom private lesson via Skype or other service. $50. SALE! $40:

Pronunciation Guide

Symbol          Pronunciation

a (long)        as in saw, star

a               as in up, tub

i (long)        as in key, feet

i               as in pin, him

u (long)        as in room, food

u               as in put, pull

e (long)        as in egg, day

e               as in test

o (long)        as in so, foe

ai              as in eye, Thailand

au              as in crow

ch              as in chase, avoid aspiration

dh              aspirated d

jh              aspirated j

jn              gy pronounced simultaneously

mr              mr pronounced simultaneously

sr              as in shrine

th              aspirated t

ty              ty pronounced simultaneously

dhy             aspirated d and y pronounced simultaneously

r               in between the English r and d

South Indian Konokol

Syllables                      Pronunciation

da, lan, na, ta, tam, tang     long a

ka, kita                       short a

dim, ki, mi, ri                long i

din, di                        short i                            

dum, gu                        long u

ju                             short u


North Indian Bols

Syllables                           Pronunciation

dha, na, ta                         long a

ga, ka, kat, ta (kata, kita)        short a

de, dhe, ge, gen, ke, kre, tre      long e

re, te, tet                         short e

dhi, di, ki                         long i

dhin, din, ri, ti, tin              short i

tun                                 long u

Further Resources

Ancient Rhythms–Future Grooves

Ancient Rhythms–Future Grooves: Audio and MIDI Percussion Groove Tracks from the Traditions of Africa, Bali, and India. Want more audio and MIDI files? Get this complete collection of groove tracks from the book Ancient Traditions–Future Possibilities. For a limited time, get both the book and the enhanced audio CD set with MIDI files for only $53.95 (SALE! Normally $74.95): Add 1 to Cart. Buy 1 Now.

Skype School

Skype online music lesson guitar pick icon carved in Bali for Matthew Montfort

Further instruction on this material is available through private Skype lessons with the author, Matthew Montfort.